Chandogya Upanishad:

The Chanters' Teaching:

Book II Part II


II.13

1. When one invites a woman,'A woman', etc. is added for clarity that is the Hinkara; when one makes known one's desire, that is the Prastava; when one lies close to the woman, that is the Udgitha; when one lies with her, that is the Pratihara; when one reaches the climax, that is the Nidhana-when one reaches the end, that is the Nidhana. This is the Vamadevya, woven on the sexual act.

2. The one who knows the Vamadevya, woven on the sexual act, achieves the sexual act, procreates from every sexual act: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not reject any woman: that should be the vow.

II.14

1. Rising, it is the Hirikara; risen, it is the Prastava; at midday, it is the Udgitha; in the afternoon, it is the Pratihara; setting, it is the Nidhana. This is the Brhat, woven on the sun.

2. The one who knows the Brhat, woven on the sun, becomes radiant, an eater of food: he attains his full life span, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of the one who gives heat: that should be the vow.

II.15

1. When clouds gather, that is the Hirikara; when a rain-cloud forms, that is the Prastava; when it rains, that is the Udgitha; when it lightens and thunders, that is the Pratihara; when it ceases, that is the Nidhana. This is the Vairupa, woven on Parianya.

2. The one who knows the Vairupa, woven on Parjanya, pens in all kinds of (virupa) fine-looking (suriipa) animals: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of the one who rains: that should be the vow.

II.16

1. Spring is the Hirikara; summer is the Prastava; the rainy season is the Udgitha; autumn is the Pratihara; winter is the Nidhana. This is the Vairaja, woven on the seasons.

2. The one who knows the Vairaja, woven on the seasons, excels (viraj-) in offspring and animals and in the radiance of brahman: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of the seasons: that should be the vow.

II.17 1. Earth is the Hirikara; middle-air is the Prastava; sky is the Udgitha; the directions are the Pratihara; the ocean is the Nidhana. These are the 'Sakvans, woven on the worlds.

2. The one who knows the Sakvaris, woven on the worlds, becomes a possessor of worlds: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of the worlds: that should be the vow.

II.18 1. Goats are the Hinkara; sheep are the Prastava; cows are the Udgitha; horses are the Pratihara; man is the Nidhana. These are the Revatis, woven on the animals.

2. The one who knows the Revatis, woven on the animals, becomes rich in animals: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of the animals: that should be the vow.

II.19 1. HairLoman, usually the hair of the body is the Hinkara; skin is the Prastava; flesh is the Udgitha; bone is the Pratihara; marrow is the Nidhana. This is the Yajnayajiya, woven on the parts of the body.

2. The one who knows the Yajnayajiya, woven on the parts of the body, possesses the parts of the body, and is not maimed in any part: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not eat meat for a year: that should be the vow. Or he should not eat meat: that should be the vow.

II.20

1. Fire is the Hinkara; air is the Prastava; the sun is the Udgitha; the constellations are the Pratihara; the moon is the Nidhana. This is the Rajana, woven on the deities.

2. The one who knows the Rdjana, woven on the deities, shares a world with, shares power with, attains union with the deities: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not speak ill of Brahmanas: that should be the vow.

II.21

1. The threefold knowledge is the Hirikara; the three worlds are the Prastava; fire, air and sun are the UdgTtha; constellations, birds and light rays are the Pratihara; snakes, gandharvas and ancestors are the Nidhana. This is the saman, woven on everything.

2. The one who knows the saman, woven on everything, becomes everything.

3. There is a verse about it:

There is nothing else beyond them, older
Than the threes, the fivefold threes.

4. The one who knows this knows everything. All the directions bring him tribute. One should contemplate, T am everything': that should be the vow. That should be the vow.

II.22 1. I recommend the roaring style of saman, called 'animal-like': it is the Udgitha of Agni. The 'indistinct' belongs to Prajapati, the 'distinct' to Soma, the 'soft and smooth' to Vayu, the 'smooth and powerful' to Indra, the 'crane-like' to Brhaspati, the 'ill-sounding' to Varuna. One should practise all of them, but avoid the one that belongs to Varuna.

2. Thinking, 'Let me sing into being immortality for the gods!', one should sing it into being. 'Let me sing into being the offering (svadha) for the ancestors, hope for human beings, grass and water for the animals, a heavenly world for the patron of the sacrifice, food for myself!': meditating on these things in the mind, one should chant undistracted.

3. All vowels are the selves of Indra; all sibilants are the selves of Prajapati; all stops are the selves of Death.The linguistic terms used are soara, vowels; flsman, the consonants s, s, r [and m], translated here as sibilants; and sparsa, normally the contact-consonants, k to m, but here perhaps including also the semi-vowels. If someone finds fault with one regarding one's vowels, one should say, 'I have gone for refuge to Indra: he will answer you.'

4. If someone finds fault with one regarding one's sibilants, one should say, 'I have gone for refuge to Prajapati: he will crush you.' If someone finds fault with one regarding one's stops, one should say, 'I have gone for refuge to Death: he will bum you up.'

5. One should pronounce all vowels with resonance, with strength, thinking, 'Let me bestow strength on Indra!' One should pronounce all sibilants without swallowing, without dropping, distinctly, thinking, 'Let me give myself up to Prajapati!' One should pronounce all stops crisply, without slurring, thinking, 'Let me keep myself from Death!'

II.23

1. There are three who have dharma as their trunk.On this passage, see Olivelle 334-5, and his article (1996a). He considers that the one who rests in brahman is specifically 'the one who practises OM'which fits the context here, though in general I think he tries to narrow the meaning of brahman too much. 'Believes in' is added for clarity, though it is warranted by the quotation-word id.. The first believes in sacrifice, study and giving, the second in asceticism (tapas); the third is the brahmacarin, living in his teacher's family-completely dedicating himself to his teacher's family. All these win worlds of merit. The one who rests in brahman attains immortality.

2. Prajapati heated up (abhi-tap-) the worlds. When they were heated up, the threefold knowledge issued from them. He heated that up. When it was heated up, the soundsLiterally, 'syllables' (aksara) BHUH, BHUVAH, SVAH, issued from it.

3. He heated them up. When they were heated up, the OM issued from them. Just as all leaves are penetrated and joined together by their main vein, all speech is penetrated and joined together by the OM. The OM is all this. The OM is all this.

II.24

1. Scholars of brahman say, 'Since the morning pressingThe three Soma-pressings carried out in the course of the day are the pratahsavana, morning pressing; the madhyandina swana, midday pressing; and trfiya savana, third (evening) pressing. belongs to the Vasus, the midday pressing to the Rudras, and the third pressing to the Adityas and the Visvedevas,

2. 'Where, then, is the world of the patron of the sacrifice?' How could one perform a sacrifice without knowing this? One should perform it knowing this:

3. Before the start of the morning recitation,Prataranuvaka, recital of verses of invitation to the sacrifice at the beginning of the pratahsavana. In this chapter, terms such as 'the patron of the sacrifice' have been inserted for clarity. the patron sits down behind the Garhapatya fire, facing north, and sings the sdman of the Vasus:

4. 'Open. up. the door of the world, that we may see you.

For the sake of king . . . hum .... a ... ship . . . o . . a!'These verses were chanted in the ornate s&man style, indicated in the Sanskrit by the marking of lengthened vowels (some as long as 18 beats) and stobhas inserted between syllables.

5. Then he makes an offering, saying: 'Homage to Agni, dwelling on earth, dwelling in a world. Find a world for me, the patron of the sacrifice. This is the patron's world: here shall I go,

6. 'As patron, after my lifespan. SVAHA!' Then, saying, 'Draw back the bolt!' he stands up. The Vasus offer him the morning pressing.

7. Before the start of the midday pressing, the patron sits down behind the AgnTdhriya fire, facing north, and sings the saman of the Rudras:

8. 'Open ... up ... the door of the world . . . that we may see you . . .

For the sake of glo . . . hum ...a...ry...o . . . a . . .!'

9. Then he makes an offering, saying: 'Homage to Vayu, dwelling in middle-air, dwelling in a world. Find a world for me, the patron of the sacrifice. This is the patron's world: here shall I go,

10. 'As patron, after my lifespan. SVAHA!' Then, saying, 'Draw back the bolt!' he stands up. The Rudras offer him the midday pressing.

11. Before the start of the third pressing, the patron sits down behind the AhavanTya fire, facing north, and sings the saman of the Adityas and the Visvedevas:

12. 'Open ... up ... the door of the world . . . that we may see you . . .

For the sake of sovereign . . . hum ... a ... ty ... i . . . a . . .!'

13. -the Adityas' saman. Then the Visvedevas' saman:

'Open ... up ... the door of the world . . . that we may see you . . .

For the sake of em . . . hum ... S ... pire . . . o . . . a . . . !'

14. Then he makes an offering, saying: 'Homage to the Adityas and the Visvedevas, dwelling in the sky, dwelling in a world. Find a world for me, the patron of the sacrifice.

15. 'This is the patron's world: here shall I go, as patron, after my life span. SVAHA!' Then, saying, 'Draw back the bolt!' he stands up.

16. The Adityas and the Visvedevas offer him the third pressing. The one who knows this knows the element Matra, element or most basic part, for example the smallest component of speech. of the sacrifice: the one who knows this.




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