Chandogya Upanishad:

The Chanters' Teaching:

Book II Part I


II.1

1. OM. Contemplation of the saman as a whole is good (sadhu). What is good, folk call 'prosperity (saman)'; what is not good, 'not prosperity'.

2. They say, too, 'He approached him tactfully (samna),' There is a play here on three different words saman, which may or
may not be related: (1) verse of the Samaveda; (2) prosperity; (3)
kindness, diplomacy. meaning 'He approached him well'; and they say, 'He approached him tactlessly (asamna),' meaning 'He approached him badly'.

3. And they say, too, 'Oh! Lucky (saman) for us!' meaning 'Oh! Good for us!' when something good happens; and they say, 'Oh! Unlucky (asaman) for us!' meaning 'Oh! Bad for us!' when something bad happens.

4. Good dharmas will come quickly and do homage to him葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the good as saman.

II.2

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman in the worlds. Earth is the Hirikara; fire is the Prastava; middle-air is the Udgitha; the sun is the Pratihara; sky is the Nidhana. That is going upward.

2. But coming downward, sky is the Hirikara; the sun is the Prastava; middle-air is the Udgitha; fire is the Pratihara; earth is the Nidhana.

3. Worlds upward and downward are made fit for the one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman in the worlds.

II.3

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman in rain. The wind beforehand is the Hinkara; when the raindoud forms, that is the Prastava; when it rains, that is the Udgitha; when it lightens and thunders, that is the Pratihara; when it ceases, that is the Nidhana.

2. It rains for him, and he makes it rain葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman in the rain.

II.4

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman in all water. When the raindoud gathers, that is the Hinkara; when it rains, that is the Prastava; that which flows east is the Udgitha; that which flows west is the Pratihara; the ocean is the Nidhana.

2. He does not die in water, but becomes rich in water葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman in all water.

II.5

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman in the seasons. Spring is the Hinkara; summer is the Prastava; the rainy season is the Udgitha; autumn is the Pratihara; winter is the Nidhana.

2. The seasons are tempered to him, and he becomes rich in seasons The seasons are made suitable for him, and he becomes rtumat, 'a possessor of seasons', rich in the good things that
the seasons bring. the one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman in the seasons.

II.6

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman in the animals (pasu). Goats are the Hinkara; sheep are the Frastava; cows are the Udgitha; horses are the Pratihara; man (purusa) is the Nidhana.

2. Animals come to him, and he becomes rich in animals葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman in the animals.

II.7

1. One should contemplate the fivefold saman, the higher than the highest, in the breaths. Breath is the Hinkara; speech is the Prastava; the eye is the Udgitha; the ear is the Pratihara; the mind is the Nidhana.

2. He gets what is higher than the highest, wins worlds that are higher than the highest葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the fivefold saman, the higher than the highest, in the breaths.

So much about the fivefold.

II.8

1. Now about the sevenfold:

One should contemplate the sevenfold saman in speech. The seven-fold saman separates the Hinkara and the Adi, 'beginning',
and inserts the Upadrava, 'accessory parf, sung by the Udgatr. Whatever in speech is hum is the Hinkara; whatever is pra is the Prastava; whatever is a is the Adi;

2. Whatever is ud is the Udgitha; whatever is prati is the Pratihara; whatever is upa is the Upadrava; whatever is ni is the Nidhana. Hum here may represent nasal sounds, or stobhas in general. The names of the other parts of the chant are associated with the prepositions of Sanskrit: pra, towards; a, all the way to/from; ud, up; prati, against or
across; upa, up to; ni, down. Between them they seem to suggest most possible forms of action

3. Speech gives'milk, the milk of speech, for him, and he becomes a possessor of food, an eater of food葉he one who, knowing this, contemplates the sevenfold saman in speech.

II.9

1. One should contemplate the sevenfold saman as the sun. It is always the same (sama), hence it is saman. Everyone thinks,Added for clarity 'It faces me, it faces me'. It is the same for everyone, hence it is saman.

2. One should know that all beings are connected with it. Its form Added for clarity, here and in the rest of the chapter before rising is the Hinkara. The domestic animals (pasu) are connected with that: because they share in the Hinkara of the saman they go 'him'. The ritual sound hum is said to resemble the lowing of a cow for her calf.

3. Its form when it has first risen is the Prastava. Human beings are connected with that: because they share in the Prastava of the saman they are lovers of praise (prastuti), lovers of fame.

4. Its form at the time when cattle meet is the Adi. The birds are connected with that: because they share in the Adi of the saman they fly around in middle-air relying on just themselves (atmanam adaya), without a support.

5. Its form just at midday is the Udgitha. The gods are connected with that: because they share in the Udgitha of the saman they are the best of the children of Prajapati.

6. Its form after midday but before evening fallsLiterally, 'before the latter part of the day {aparShna)', a period of time that in this context seems not to correspond precisely to either 'afternoon' or 'evening', but to include part of each. is the Pratihara. Embryos are connected with that: because they share in the Pratihara of the saman they are held together (pratihrta) and do not fall down.

7. Its form after evening falls but before setting is the Upadrava. The forest animals are connected with that: because they share in the Upadrava of the saman, when they see a human being they run away (upa-dru-) to a thicket or cave.

8. Its form when it has first set is the Nidhana. The ancestors are connected with that: because they share in the Nidhana of the saman, folk give them a place (ni-dha-).

This is how one contemplates the sevenfold saman as the sun.

II.10

1. Then one should contemplate the sevenfold saman as equal to the self, and as beyond death. 'Hirikara' is three syllables: Trastava' is three syllables, so it is equal.

2. 'Adi' is two syllables: 'Pratihara' has four syllables. Take one from that to this, then it is equal.

3. 'UdgTtha' is three syllables: 'Upadrava' is four syllables. With three each it becomes equal, but a syllable (aksara) is left over. That [a-ksa-ra] is three syllables, so it is equal.

4. 'Nidhana' is three syllables, so that becomes equal. There are twenty-two syllables here.

5. By twenty-one one reaches the sun: the sun is the twenty-first from here. By the twenty-second one conquers what is beyond the sun, heaven, free from sorrow.

6. He gains victory over the sun揺as victory greater than victory over the sunOr perhaps, 'the victory of the sun' the one who, knowing this, contemplates the sevenfold saman here as equal to the self, and as beyond death: who contemplates the saman.

II.11

1. The mind is the Hinkara; speech is the Prastava; the eye is the Udgitha; the ear is the Pratihara; the breath is the Nidhana. This is the Gayatra, woven on the breaths (prana).

2. The one who knows the Gayatra, woven on the breaths, becomes alive (pranin): he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should be of great mind: that should be the vow.

II.12

1. When one rubs the sticks together,The sticks' is added for clarity. that is the Hinkara; when smoke is produced, that is the Prastava; when it bursts into flame, that is the Udgitha; when there are embers, that is the Pratihara; when it dies down, that is the Nidhana謡hen it goes out, that is the Nidhana. This is the Rathantara, woven on fire.

2. The one who knows the Rathantara, woven on fire, becomes radiant with brahman, an eater of food: he attains his full lifespan, lives long, becomes great in offspring and animals, great in fame. One should not sip water or spit facing a fire: that should be the vow.




| Links |

MantraOnNet.com, All Rights Reserved